Abbreviations are commonly used in academic texts, particularly when making reference within the text, and can vary depending on the reference system. The following chart supplies some examples of the more common abbreviations and their use. Note that conventions for punctuation may vary. Thus, when writing for publication, always consult the publisher's style sheet.
Used in a reference list to specify the edition of the work cited.
for example, for instance
Used when referring to figures in a text of work.
which is to say, in other words, that is
Used when referring to lines in a text.
Can be used when referencing a manuscript.
take special note of; note
no date (of publication)
Used in referencing when a date is unknown - quite common with website addresses.
Used for indicating page numbers when referencing.
frequently, in every part, in many places, too many references to list
Used when referring to sections of a text.
namely, that is to say, in other words
Used for indicating volume numbers in referencing.